TI: Cultivation of Volvariella volvacea and Pleurotus flabellatus in sub-montane and low hills sub-tropical zone of Himachal Pradesh.
AU: Suman-BC; Sharma-BK
SO: Journal-of-Mycology-and-Plant-Pathology. 1999, 29: 2, 250-251; 4 ref.
AB: The cultivation of V. volvacea and P. flabellatus under natural conditions was studied at the Horticultural Regional Research Station, Dhaulakuan, Himachal Pradesh, India, during 1996-98. Cultivation of V. volvacea was done during May-September (temperature range 30-42oC) and that of P. flabellatus March-April and September-October (temperature range 20-30o). V. volvacea was cultivated on paddy straw. From one bed approximately 3.5-4.0 kg of mushrooms were harvested in a month; there were 4 flushes and each flush appeared at 5-10 day intervals with an average yield of 750 g to 1 kg per flush, per bed. P. flabellatus was cultivated on wheat straw. There were 5 flushes, each appearing at an interval of 6-7 days in a cropping period of 40-45 days. From one flush an average of 400-500 g of fruit bodies were harvested.
GE: India-; Himachal-Pradesh
TI: Cloning of the cbhI and cbhII genes involved in cellulose utilisation by the straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea.
AU: Jia-J; Dyer-PS; Buswell-JA; Peberdy-JF
SO: Molecular-and-General-Genetics. 1999, 261: 6, 985-993; 35 ref.
AB: Volvariella volvacea is cultivated on substrates rich in cellulose and has been shown to produce a family of cellulolytic enzymes. A PCR-based strategy was adopted to clone genes involved in cellulose utilization, using degenerate primers designed to amplify conserved catalytic domain sequences of cellobiohydrolases (CBHs). PCR with these primers produced 2 DNA fragments (GenBank accession numbers AF156693 and AF156694, respectively) with sequence similarity to the cbhI and cbhII gene families detected in Trichoderma, Phanerochaete and Agaricus species. Full-length clones of these genes were obtained from an EMBL3 genomic library, and RACE-PCR was used to verify the presence of introns. The cbhI homologue has a coding region of 1722 bp, containing 2 introns, generating a 536 amino acid polypeptide product. The cbhII gene has a coding region of 1693 bp, containing 5 introns, and gives rise to a 470-amino acid polypeptide product. Northern and PCR analyses were used to study the expression of the genes. These revealed that transcripts of both genes were induced on medium containing cellulose, with cbhI being expressed more strongly than cbhII, but were repressed on medium containing glucose.
TI: RNA composition changes in Volvariella volvacea during cold-shock stress.
AU: Chen-MJ; Tang-Q; Yan-PL; He-DM; Lin-XF; Feng-ZY; Guan-SM; Pan-YJ; Jong-SC
SO: Micologia-Neotropical-Aplicada. 1998, 11: 1-7; 7 ref.
AB: Changes in RNA composition in response to cold-shock at 4C in the mycelium of V. volvacea, a cultivated mushroom of the tropics and subtropics, were examined. Electrophoretic analysis revealed that molecular size increased, reached maximum induction during the 2nd hour post-shift, and subsequently decreased. RNA began to degrade in the 8th hour. Using the differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, results indicated that cold-shock induced a new pattern of gene expression.
TI: Cold shock gene isolation in Volvariella volvacea.
AU: Chen-MingJie; Tan-Qi; Yan-PeiLan; Ling-XiaFen; Pan-YingJie; Chen-MJ; Tan-Q; Yan-PL; Ling-XF; Pan-YJ
SO: Mycosystema. 1998, 17: 4, 327-330; 9 ref.
AB: Analysis by differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) showed that changes in gene expression occurred in mycelium of V. volvacea during low temperature stress.
TI: Viability of Volvariella volvacea strains stored in liquid nitrogen.
OT: Viabilidad de cepas de Volvariella volvacea conservadas en nitrogeno liquido.
AU: Perez-R; Salmones-D
SO: Revista-Mexicana-de-Micologia. 1997, publ. 1998, 13: 78-80; 17 ref.
AB: Results of the recovery of 11 strains of V. volvacea stored in liquid nitrogen are given. For cryopreservation, the mycelia were inoculated onto Setaria geniculata, Sorghum almum or Sorghum vulgare [S. bicolor] seeds and placed in cryovials in contact with a cryoprotectant solution of 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 30, 60 or 90 min. The strains were maintained in liquid nitrogen for 2 weeks. The samples were then thawed out and mycelial recuperation evaluated by daily observations under the microscope. The S. geniculata seeds with 60 or 90 min of contact with DSMO proved to be the best treatments for strain cryopreservation.
TI: Regeneration of protoplasts from hyphal strands of Volvariella volvacea.
AU: Reyes-RG; Eguchi-F; Iijima-T; Higaki-M
SO: Journal-of-Wood-Science. 1998, 44: 5, 401-407; 44 ref.
AB: A series of experiments on the preparation and regeneration of protoplasts from hyphal strands of Volvariella volvacea were conducted with the aim of optimizing the conditions for its efficient regeneration. One commercial (Vvc1) and two wild (EAAC-0001 and EAAC-0002) strains of V. volvacea from the Philippines were used and subjected to varying conditions to determine the most efficient means for regeneration of their protoplasts. The effects of age and type of strain, pH, type and concentration of osmotic stabilizer, enzymatic composition, treatment time, temperature, reciprocal frequency during enzymatic lysis of the cell wall, and centrifugation conditions were investigated. Results showed that the three strains of V. volvacea had varying responses in terms of yield, size, and ability of their protoplasts to regenerate into the protoplast regeneration medium. Among the three strains, EAAC-0002 had the highest rate of regeneration. The 5-day-old culture of V. volvacea, when subjected to a combination of 2% Novozyme 234 and 0.2% chitinase in 0.6 M mannitol (pH 6.0) for 3 h at 30C, 90 strokes/min and centrifuged at 1100 g for 10 min, produced an efficient yield of protoplasts with a relatively high regeneration rate.
TI: Physiological considerations for efficient mycelial colonization of Philippine strains of Volvariella volvacea.
AU: Reyes-RG; Eguchi-F; Iijima-T; Higaki-M
SO: Journal-of-Wood-Science. 1998, 44: 5, 408-413; 18 ref.
AB: The nutritional and physical requirements for the efficient mycelial colonization of Volvariella volvacea were elucidated with the percentage mycelial colonization and density as references. This investigation was limited to the evaluation of two commercial strains (designated Vvc1 and Vvc2) and two wild strains (designated EAAC-0001 and EAAC-0002) of V. volvacea from the Philippines with the aim of providing baseline data on their physiological requirements. The four strains of V. volvacea had varying preferences for carbon. Vvc1 preferred polysaccharides (starch and cellulose), whereas Vvc2 grew luxuriantly at a relatively rapid rate in sugar alcohol (sorbitol). The two wild strains preferred starch as a carbon source. In terms of nitrogen utilization, soytone, peptone, and glycine supported efficient mycelial colonization of the four strains. The vitamin utilization test revealed that ascorbic acid, calcium pantothenate, and biotin are good sources. The mycelial growth performances of the strains were also evaluated on six dehydrated mycological media. Efficient colonization of Vvc1, Vvc2, and EAAC-0002 with dense mycelial growth was noted in mycological agar. EAAC-0001, on the other hand, grew more efficiently in malt extract agar. The Philippine strains of V. volvacea grew luxuriantly when incubated at 35C and pH 8.0 under dark and sealed conditions. Moreover, the relatively higher moisture content (70%) of the oolong tea leaf formulation favourably stimulated efficient mycelial colonization. Under optimum physiological conditions, Vvc1, Vvc2, and EAAC-0002 were fast-growing strains, whereas EAAC-0001 was a moderately growing type.
TI: Suppression of cell cycle progression by a fungal lectin: activation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.
AU: Liu-WingKeung; Ho-JCK; Ng-TzeBun; Liu-WK; Ng-TB
SO: Biochemical-Pharmacology. 2001, 61: 1, 33-37; 22 ref.
AB: The antiproliferative activity of a fungal lectin (VVL), isolated from Volvariella volvacea, was studied against a battery of tumour cell lines. Cell proliferation was decreased by VVL doses of 0.32-4 M, with S180 cells being the most sensitive. When S180 cells were incubated for 48 h with VVL at 0.32-0.8 M, prominent blebs on the cell surface and large vacuoles in the cytoplasm were observed under fluorescence spectroscopy. VVL did not exert ribosome-inactivating activity or induce changes in the expression of cyclins A, D1 and E. It did activate the expression of cyclin kinase inhibitors in a dose-dependent manner. VVL arrested cell proliferation by blocking cell cyle progression in the G2/M phase.
TI: Factors affecting cellulase production in Volvariella, the straw mushroom.
AU: Urmila-Gupta; Roma-Kalra; Phutela-RP; Gupta-U; Kalra-R
SO: Mushroom-Research. 1996, 5: 1, 29-32; 11 ref.
AB: In an evaluation of 3 strains of V. volvacea and 2 strains of V. diplasia, the highest cellulase activity in terms of carboxymethyl cellulase, filter paperase, cellobiase and extracellular proteins was exhibited by V. diplasia strain IIHR. For obtaining the maximum cellulolytic potential of this strain, cellulose was the best carbon source and peptone and sodium nitrate were the best N sources. The optimum temperature and pH for cellulase production were 35C and 5-6, respectively, with an incubation period of 7 days.
TI: Producing single-cell (microbial) protein on lignocellulosic or other food and agricultural wastes.
AU: Chang-ST; Khor-GL; Ng-LC; Ong-KC; Quimio-TH; Stanton-WR; Wang-WCW; Steinkraus-KH
SO: Handbook-of-indigenous-fermented-foods. 1996, Ed. 2, 655-695; 3 pp. of ref.
PB: Marcel Dekker Inc.; New York; USA
AB: Mushroom cultivation and single cell protein production using agricultural plant wastes in developing countries is described. Topics presented include: cultivation technology of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach for developing countries; mushrooms and single-cell (microbial) protein; production of the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus species); Growth of Pleurotus ostreatus on waste paper; production of Volvariella volvacea; straw mushrooms; and, edible Termitomyces and their culture in the laboratory.
TI: Analysis of equilibrium moisture content and drying constant of mushroom (Volvariella volvaceae).
OT: Analisis kadar air kesetimbangan dan konstanta pengeringan jamur merang (Volvariella volvaceae).
AU: Alamsyah-R; Mahdar-P; Syah-I
SO: Warta-IHP. 1995, 12: 1-2, 14-17; 9 ref.
AB: Knowledge of the equilibrium moisture content (Me) and drying constant (K) of mushrooms is useful for drying and storage. Me and K models were designed for V. volvaceae [V. volvacea]. The models were functions of drying temperature and designed based on infinite slab and sphere geometry. Experiments were conducted at 35, 40, 45 and 50C, on blanched and unblanched samples and at drying air velocities of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 m/s. The models based on infinite slab geometry gave the best results.
TI: Investigation of nitrogen-fixing organisms in straw media for three fungi.
AU: Zheng,-SL; Yang,-PY; Lin,-XJ; Hong,-LQ
SO: Zhongguo-Shiyongjun-Edible-Fungi-of-China. 1988, No. 5, 14-16.
AB: The presence of nitrogen-fixing organisms in straw on which Agaricus bitorquis, Volvariella volvacea or Pleurotus spp. were grown, was investigated. The numbers of organisms found were in the range 6.6 X 104 to 4.4 X 108/g straw. Acetylene-reducing-activity reached 7 X 10-5 nmol jar-1 h-1. Growth of the nitrogen-fixing organisms and nitrogen fixation were increased in the presence of the fungi.
TI: Preliminary study of cellulolytic enzymes of higher basidiomycetes.
AU: Chen,-Y; Li,-LN
SO: Zhongguo-Shiyongjun-Edible-Fungi-of-China. 1987, No. 1, 7-9; 9 ref.
AB: Data on enzyme contents are tabulated for Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus sapidus, P. florida, Hericium erinaceus, Polyporus versicolor [Coriolus versicolor], Ganoderma lucidum, G. capense, Lentinus edodes [Lentinula edodes], Collybia velutipes, Auricularia auricula, Armillariella tabescens [Armillaria tabescens], Tremella fuciformis, Marasmius androsaceus, Schizophyllum commune, Volvariella volvacea and a Trichoderma species.
TI: A study on superoxide dismutase of the fruiting body of the straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea.
AU: Li,-JZ; Zhu,-ZQ
SO: Journal-of-Fujian-Agricultural-College. 1987, 16: 3, 220-223; 6 ref., 3 fig.
AB: Analysis of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isozymes in V. volvacea using horizontal slab polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed 1-2 isozyme bands at the spore stage and 2-4 bands during stipe elongation and at maturity. The SOD isozymes in the stipe seemed to be the most sensitive to fruiting body senescence. The number of SOD isozyme bands in fruiting bodies during stipe elongation and at maturity after storage at 4C for 4 days remained the same in both volva and stipe, but increased from 2 to 5-8 in the pileus after storage. The possible mechanism of senescence and its relation to changes in SOD isozyme during storage is discussed.
GE: China-; Fujian-
TI: Yield performance of paddy straw mushroom (Volvariella sp.) under natural climatic conditions in Orissa.
AU: Pani-BK; Naik-RP
SO: Environment-and-Ecology. 1998, 16: 4, 968-969; 5 ref.
AB: Seasonal productivity of paddy straw mushroom under natural climatic conditions in Orissa, India, was studied. Significantly higher yields of Volvariella volvacea (15.9% biological efficiency) and V. diplasia (15.3% BE) were recorded in July (25.1-35.1C and 73-92% RH). The period from March to October was suitable for mushroom cultivation. No fruiting bodies appeared during December-January. Significantly lower mushroom yields (4.2-4.9% BE) were found in February.
GE: Orissa-; India-
TI: Comparative utilization of lignocellulosic components of paddy straw by Pleurotus sajor-caju and Volvariella volvacea.
AU: Datta-S; Chakravarty-DK
SO: Indian-Phytopathology. 2002, 55: 3, 308-309; 8 ref.
AB: Rice straw cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin degradation, and laccase and cellulase production by P. sajor-caju and V. volvacea were investigated. Rice straw was inoculated separately with both fungi, and samples of colonized substrate were studied. The presence of laccase and cellulase in P. sajor-caju enabled the fungus to efficiently utilize lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose and to degrade lignin more actively until the end of the spawn run phase. During fructification, cellulose and hemicellulose degradation intensified. V. volvacea utilized cellulose and hemicellulose throughout the cropping phase, but was unable to utilize lignin at any stage due to the absence of laccase. P. sajor-caju, more efficient in substrate colonization due to a more active hydrolytic enzyme system, gave higher mycelium yield than V. volvacea.
TI: Induction of laccase activity in the edible straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea.
AU: Chen-ShiCheng; Ma-DengBo; Ge-Wei; Buswell-JA; Chen-SC; Ma-DB; Ge-W
SO: FEMS-Microbiology-Letters. 2003, 218: 1, 143-148; 34 ref.
AB: Volvariella volvacea, strain V14, produces multiple forms of extracellular laccase when grown in submerged culture in a defined medium with glucose as sole carbon source, and on cotton waste 'compost' representative of the conditions used for industrial-scale mushroom cultivation. In liquid culture, enzyme synthesis is associated with the onset of secondary growth, and is positively regulated by copper (up to 200 M CuSO4) and by various aromatic compounds. In solid-state systems, only low levels of laccase are detectable during the vegetative growth phase but enzyme activity increases sharply at the onset of fruiting and during sporophore development.
TI: Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of edible mushrooms.
AU: Fu-HuiYin; Shieh-DenEn; Ho-CT; Fu-HY; Shieh-DE
SO: Journal-of-Food-Lipids. 2002, 9: 1, 35-46.
AB: The antioxidative potency of commercially available mushrooms in Taiwan was studied. The free radical scavenging activities of these mushrooms were demonstrated by using the DPPH method. The antioxidative activities of ethanol extracts of various mushrooms in an emulsified maize oil (o/w) system at 60C were compared. The addition of test compounds in maize oil emulsions significantly extended the induction period of lipid oxidation. The order of inhibitory activity of mushroom extracts on oxidation in emulsion system was Agaricus bisporus > Hypsizigus marmoreus > Volvariella volvacea > Flammulina velutipes > Pleurotus eryngii > Pleurotus ostreatus > Hericium erinaceus > Lentinula edodes. In the thermal oxidative stability test, using lard, the order of antioxidative activity of test materials showed similar tendencies, except for the extract of Lentinula edodes.
TI: Complex use of wastes containing cellulose.
AU: Li-RiQiang; Xi-YuYing; Cao-ZhiLiang; Han-WenHui; Liu-JiQing; Li-RQ; Xi-YY; Cao-ZL; Han-WH; Liu-JQ
SO: China-Environmental-Science. 2002, 22: 1, 24-27; 9 ref.
AB: In order to enhance the efficient use of complex waste products and reduce its polluting ability, corn straw powder and distiller's grains were fermented by some bacteria (Trichoderma, Rhizopus nigricans, Lentinus edodes, Agaricus bisporus, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Volvariella volvacea, Memnoniella echinata, Stachybotrys atra, Torula allii, Myrothecium melanosporum, Chaetomium dolichotrichum, Gonytrichum macrocladium, Chaetomium atrosporum, Trichoderma viridae, Candida tropicalis and Geotrichum candidum) which were able to degrade cellulose and lignin. The results revealed that the protein content of the fermented corn straw powder and distiller's grains increased significantly which reached 17.04 and 29.64% for pure protein and 731.2 and 64.0%, respectively, higher than non-fermented control, and 18.94 and 30.86% for crude protein and 576.4 and 65.3%, respectively, higher than non-fermented control. Higher activities of cellulase, hemicellulase and amylase were determined in the fermented products so that the byproducts can be used as a protein source of feeds.
TI: A novel and potent ribonuclease from fruiting bodies of the mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius.
AU: Ye-XY; Ng-TB
SO: Biochemical-and-Biophysical-Research-Communications. 2002, 293: 2, 857-861; 19 ref.
AB: A ribonuclease (RNase), with an N-terminal sequence different from those of ribonucleases from the mushrooms Irpex lacteus, Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus tuber-regium, and Volvariella volvacea, was purified from fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Pleurotus pulmonarius. The N-terminal sequence of P. pulmonarius RNase manifested homology to a portion of the sequences of ribosome inactivating protein abrin-b, abrin-c, and abrin-d, and Bacillus subtilis transcriptional regulator. The ribonuclease was adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel, CM-Sepharose, and Mono S. It displayed a molecular mass of 14.4 kDa in both sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration on Superdex 75. The ribonuclease exhibited an activity of 25 114 U/mg on yeast tRNA. The highest ribonucleolytic activity was demonstrated toward poly C, followed by poly A, and then by poly G. There was no activity toward poly U. The optimal pH for its activity was 7 and the optimal temperature was 55 C. It inhibited cell-free translation in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate with an IC50 of 0.33 nM.
TI: Purification of an antitumor-active, branched (1 3)-beta-D-glucan from Volvariella volvacea, and elucidation of its fine structure.
AU: Kishida,-E; Sone,-Y; Misaki,-A
SO: Carbohydrate-Research. 1989, 193: 1, 227-239; 16 ref.
TI: Amino acid analysis of edible and medicinal fungi introduced into Hebei Province.
AU: He,-JC; Li,-YY
SO: Zhongguo-Shiyongjun-=-Edible-Fungi-of-China. 1989, No. 5, 15-17.
AB: Amino acid analyses are presented for 20 species of medicinal and edible fungi introduced into Hebei, and for waste material of 4 species. The species include Pleurotus florida, P. sajor-caju, Auricularia auricula, Lentinus edodes [Lentinula edodes], Ganoderma lucidum and 7 strains of Volvariella volvacea.
TI: Quantitative and qualitative changes in proteins during morphogenesis of the basidiocarp of Volvariella volvacea.
AU: Chang-ST; Chan-KY
SO: Mycologia. 1973, 65: 2, 355-364; 18 ref.
TI: Isolation of a new cardiotoxic protein from the edible mushroom Volvariella volvacea.
AU: Lin-J-Y; Jeng-T-W; Chen-C-C; Shi-G-Y; Tung-T-C
SO: Nature,-UK. 1973, 246: 5434, 524-525; 3 fig., 2 graphs, 1 tab.; 8 ref.
AB: A toxic protein, named volvatoxin, was isolated from V. volvacea by extraction with cold 0.8 N acetic acid, 0.016 M mercaptoethanol and 0.001 M EDTA. A single major protein peak was obtained by chromatography, and designated volvatoxin A, which had an LD50 of 1.23 mg/kg-1 body weight of mice. The biological effects of the protein included lysis of human group 0 red blood cells at 2 mu g/ml-1, the causing of a writhing reaction when administered intraperitoneally into mice, and ventricular systolic arrest in isolated toad hearts at 0.1 mg/ml-1. In gel filtration 2 components were distinguished, volvatoxins A1 and A2, in the ratio 1:3. These components were virtually nontoxic when tested separately but the toxicity of a mixture increased to a max. when A1 and A2 were present in the same ratio in which they occurred in volvatoxin A.
TI: Antigen analysis of the cultivated paddy straw mushroom of Thailand, Philippines and Ceylon.
AU: Samarawira-I; Fernando-ST
SO: Annals-of-Botany. 1973, 37: 150, 371-374; 13 ref.
AB: Antigen analysis was carried out in strains CI52, CI53 and CY101 from Thailand, Philippines and Sri Lanka, respectively. No antigenic differences between the strains were observed. The strains had similar morphological characteristics and it was concluded that they were similar to Volvariella volvacea var. masseei.
TI: Studies on the padi mushroom (Volvariella volvacea). VII. Competition between different isolates in vivo.
SO: Malaysian-Agricultural-Research. 1975, 4: 3, 223-228; 13 ref.
AB: Significant yield reductions were observed when spawn of single-basidiospore isolates from Hong Kong, Indonesia, Sarawak, Singapore and Peninsular Malaysia were combined in equal proportions in various combinations by pairs in beds of oil palm pericarp waste + shredded paper compost. Incubation periods were prolonged but the effect on the number of harvest days was not significant. No apparent mutual inhibition was exhibited between any of these isolates in vitro.[See also HcA 47, 6676.]
TI: Amino acid composition of the protein of some edible mushrooms grown in synthetic medium.
AU: Purkayastha-RP; Chandra-A
SO: Journal-of-Food-Science-and-Technology,-India. 1976, 13: 2, 86-89; 22 ref.
AB: Mycelial proteins of 5 edible mushrooms, Agaricus campestris, Lentinus subnudus, Calocybe indica, Volvariella volvacea and Termitomyces eurhizus, were estimated after growing in a liquid culture medium. Protein content was from 14 to 27% in DM. Eleven amino acds were identified in A. campestris and L. subnudus by chromatography of acid hydrolysates. Thirteen amino acids including 2 amides were detected in V. volvacea and C. indica and 10 amino acids including 2 amides were detected in V. volvacea and C. indica and 10 amino acids were identified in T. eurhizus. Leucine, threonine, tyrosine and alanine were predominant in A. campestris, L. subnudus, C. indica and V. volvacea, respectively. T. eurhizus was a better source of alanine than V. volvacea.
TI: The microbiology and enzymology of wheat straw mushroom compost production.
AU: Fermor-TR; Wood-DA
SO: Straw-decay-and-its-effect-on-disposal-and-utilization. 1979, 105-112; 15 ref.
PB: John Wiley & Sons.; Chichester; UK
AB: The aerobic microflora of mushroom composts produced by a commercial two-phase system (Formula 2) was compared with that of a rapidly prepared compost (RPC) containing no animal manure. Commercial composts took 14-21 days to prepare whereas RPC could be inoculated with spawn after 5 days. The microbial succession in RPC was altered by environmental control and by adding a carbohydrate supplement (e.g. sucrose) at the start of composting, which encouraged a build-up of thermophilic bacteria. Actinomyces (fire fang) also appeared much earlier at the expense of undesirable mesophilic fungi. The levels of activity of the extracellular enzymes cellulase, xylanase and laminarase corresponded with changes in the number of microorganisms.
TI: [Investigational techniques].
AU: Harris-D; Grossbard-E; Smith-C; Sapsed-E; Smith-RN; Long-PA; Harper-SHT; Lynch-JM; Cheshire-MV; Mundie-CM; Wood-DA; Anderson-JM; Grossbard-E (Editor); Grossbard-E (ed.)
SO: Straw-decay-and-its-effect-on-disposal-and-utilization. 1979, 337 pp.
PB: John Wiley & Sons.; Chichester; UK
AB: Measurement of oxygen uptake by straw microflora using an oxygen electrode. Harris, D. 265-266 Measurement of mechanical resistance to shearing force, as an estimate of decomposition in straw. Harris, D.; Grossbard, E.; Smith, C. 267-269 The continuous observation by autoradiography of the decay of 14C labelled rye straw incubating undisturbed on the soil surface. Grossbard, E.; Sapsed, E. 271-275 Techniques for the measurement of cellulose breakdown in soil. Smith, R.N.; Long, P.A. 277-279 Problems of assessing the degree of aerobic decomposition of straw. Grossbard, E. 285-288 The kinetics of the decomposition of straw in relation to the production of phytotoxins. Harper, S.H.T.; Lynch, J.M. 289-291 Changes in the nitrogen content of herbicide-treated straw, a potential parameter of microbial colonization. Harris, D.; Grossbard, E. 293-297 The continuous monitoring of the evolution of 14CO2 from 14C labelled rye straw, treated with herbicides, incubating undisturbed on the soil surface. Grossbard, E. 299-303 Techniques used in the study of decomposition of straw in soil. Cheshire, M.V.; Mundie, C.M. 305-307 A method of assessing biomass of Agaricus mycelium in wheat straw mushroom compost. Wood, D.A. 309-310 Animal/microbial interactions in soil biological processes. Anderson, J.M. 311-312.
TI: Nutritional quality of tropical paddy straw mushroom.
AU: Gopalakrishnan-M; Pruthi-JS
SO: Indian-Food-Packer. 1977, 31: 5, 14-17; 17 ref.
AB: Contents of moisture, crude protein, crude fibre, glucose, fructose, sucrose, total sugar, other acid-hydrolysable carbohydrates, total ash, HCl-insoluble ash, Ca, P, Fe and ascorbic acid in Agaricus and Volvariella species are reported.
CI: Food RA Abstracts 31, 5254.
TI: The possibilities of growing tropical and subtropical edible mushrooms (in temperate regions).
SO: Agricultura-Tropica-et-Subtropica. 1977, 10: 147-157; 2 fig.; 2 ref.
LS: Czech, Russian
AB: The species considered include Agaricus bitorquis, A. chionodermus, A. subedulis, Volvariella volvacea, Stropharia rugosoannulata, Pleurotus florida and Lentinus edodes. Cultural methods are outlined.
TI: Some cultural characteristics of Volvariella volvacea mycelia.
AU: Lin-KG; Broughton-WJ; Broughton-WJ (ed.); John-CK (ed.); Rajarao-JC (ed.); Lim-B (ed.)
SO: Soil-microbiology-and-plant-nutrition. 1979, 533-542; 7 ref.
PB: University of Malaya Press.; Kuala Lumpur; Malaya
TI: The sterol composition of Volvariella volvacea and other edible mushrooms.
AU: Huang,-BH; Yung,-KH; Chang,-ST
SO: Mycologia. 1985, 77: 6, 959-963; 14 ref.
AB: The total lipid content of V. volvacea, Pleurotus sajor-caju, Tremella fuciformis, Lentinus edodes, Agaricus bisporus and Auricularia auricula ranged from 0.6 to 3.1% dry weight. Sterols were separated by chromatographic techniques and their structures determined by GLC, and spectroscopic methods (IR, UV, NMR, MS). Ergosterol (provitamin D2) was present in all mushrooms and ranged from 0.01% dry weight (T. fuciformis) to 0.47% (V. volvacea). In V. volvacea ergosterol content was higher at the mature stage than at the egg stage (0.54%, 0.39%, respectively) and cap content was higher than stalk content (0.63%, 0.27%, respectively). V. volvacea, P. sajor-caju and L. edodes also contained 24beta-methylcholesta-5,7-dien-3beta-ol (provitamin D4) and 24B-methylcholesta-7-en-3beta-ol (gamma-ergostenol).
TI: The production of constitutive invertase and inulinase by the mushroom Panaeolus papilionaceus in submerged culture.
AU: Mukherjee,-K; Sengupta,-S; Chakraborty,-K
SO: Canadian-Journal-of-Microbiology. 1985, 31: 9, 773-777; 19 ref.
AB: Five edible fungi (Panaeolus papilionaceus, Coprinus lagopus, Lentinus squarrosulus, Agaricus bisporus and Volvariella volvacea) on their optimum growing media (formulae given) were screened for extracellular inulinase and invertase activities. The enzymes were found to be produced constitutively by the fungi, but the carbon source (glucose, sucrose and starch) in the medium influenced the production of individual enzymes. The highest producers of inulinase and invertase were P. papilionaceus growing in starch medium and A. bisporus growing in glucose medium, respectively. A medium for the optimum production of invertase and inulinase (for commercial use) by P. papilionaceus was developed by determining the optimum concentrations of suitable carbon and nitrogen sources. Some of the physicochemical properties of the enzymes present in the culture filtrate were studied.
TI: Reversion of mycelial protoplasts of Volvariella volvacea (Bull. ex. Fr.) Singer.
AU: Santiago,-CM, Jr.
SO: Philippine-Agriculturist. 1983, 66: 2, 168-175; 14 ref.
AB: Regeneration from protoplasts was slightly better when they were cultured on complex media than on defined media; it was enhanced by supplementary C sources and either complex or simple N sources.
TI: Paddy straw mushroom culture.
OT: La culture de la volvaire.
AU: Delmas,-J; Sun,-S
SO: P.H.M.---Revue-Horticole. 1984, No. 247, 11-17; 10 ref., 6 col. pl., 2 fig.
AB: The traditional method of Volvariella volvacea culture in humid tropical climates is outlined. For modern culture, a high cellulose substrate with a high C/N ratio is required. It is sterilized at 60C for 2-4 h after fermentation. After spawning, the temperature is maintained at 35-38?for about 4 days, then reduced to 30?to encourage flushing, and raised again after each flush. No casing is necessary. Picking is at the egg stage. All the flushes from a bed may be obtained in 15-20 days. Fresh yields vary from 12 to 30 kg/100 kg substrate dry matter. Data are tabulated on the composition of suitable substrates
TI: Effect of maturity and heat treatments on the nutritional quality of paddy straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea.
AU: Devi,-PS; Sarojini,-G
SO: Indian-Journal-of-Nutrition-and-Dietetics. 1983, 20: 7, 222-225; 6 ref.
AB: Rice straw mushrooms (Volvariella volvacea) were analysed. The range between immature and mature button and stem and expanded cap of mature mushroom was, per 100 g, of water 88.5 to 93, protein 3.1 to 4, crude fat 0.6 or 0.8, crude fibre 1.1 to 1.4, carbohydrate 1.0 (immature button) to 3.9 (cap) and ash 1.1 to 1.7 g; energy 21.8 (immature button) to 3.8 (cap) kcal; calcium 9.2 to 10.8, phosphorus 100 to 106, iron 1.2 to 1.8 and vitamin C 11 (cap) to 14 (immature button) mg; carotene, none in any of those 4 tissues. Mature buttons and stems were more nutritious than immature buttons or caps. Loss of vitamin C during the cooking of mature buttons was 50% with boiling, 67% with deep frying and 75% with shallow frying. Other nutrients were little affected by cooking.
TI: Carbohydrate analysis of some edible mushrooms.
AU: Savita-Gupta; Kapoor,-VP; Gupta,-S
SO: Vegetable-Science. 1990, 17: 2, 227-229; 10 ref.
AB: The reducing sugar contents of mushrooms and 6 other species of edible fungi examined ranged from 6.3 to 18.0% while the non-reducing sugars were in the range from 1.9 to 3.6%. The highest percentage of reducing sugars was in Volvariella volvacea (18.0%) followed by Pleurotus cystidiosus (16.5%) and Podaxis pistillaris (15.0%) and the highest percentage of non-reducing sugars was found in Pleurotus cystidiosus (3.6%) followed by Pleurotus sajor-caju (3.2%). The latter contained the lowest amount of reducing sugars (6.3%) whereas Macrolepiota rachodes [Lepiota rhacodes], Pleurotus flabellatus and Agaricus bisporus contained 10.9, 14.1 and 11.5% reducing sugars, respectively. The main sugar constituents in mushrooms were D-galactose (largest constituent), D-glucose and D-ribose.
TI: The production of extracellular endo-alpha-mannanase by the mushroom Volvariella volvacea.
AU: Khowala,-S; Sengupta,-S
SO: Canadian-Journal-of-Microbiology. 1984, 30